Mathematical Papers (Dover Books on Mathematics) by George Green
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An almost entirely self-taught mathematical genius, George Green (1793 –1841) is best known for Green's theorem, which is used in almost all computer codes that solve partial differential equations. He also published influential essays, or papers, in the fields of hydrodynamics, electricity, and magnetism. This collection comprises his most significant works.
The first paper, "An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism," which is also the longest and perhaps the most Important, appeared In 1828. It introduced the term potential as designating the result obtained by adding together the masses of all the particles of a system, each divided by its distance from a given point. Its three-part treatment first considers the properties of this function and then applies them, in the second and third parts, to the theories of magnetism and electricity.
The following paper, "Mathematical Investigations concerning the Laws of the Equilibrium of Fluids analogous to the Electric Fluid," exhibits great analytical power, as does the next, "On the Determination of the Exterior and Interior Attractions of Ellipsoids of Variable Densities." Other highlights include the brief but absorbing paper, "On the Motion of Waves in a variable canal of small depth and width," and two of his most valuable memoirs, "On the Laws of Reflexlon and Refraction of Sound" and "On the Reflexlon and Refraction of Light at the common surface of two non-crystallized Media," which should be studied together.