When Businesses Cross International Borders: Strategic Alliances and Their Alternatives (Washington Papers)
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Business firms are currently being forced to make a variety of changes to respond to both threats and opportunities in the international economy. This volume examines in detail the many ways successful companies establish a presence in overseas markets. The authors classify operations in the international environment into four categories. First, companies that do not want to actually establish local production facilities can export directly to targeted markets or engage in turnkey operations. Historically, this has been one of the most important means of acquiring international markets and continues to be a viable strategy today. Second, establishing contractual relationships with foreign companies is effective when a firm does not want to operate a wholly earned subsidy. Third, operating wholly owned facilities in other nations is one of the most preferred methods of gaining and maintaining a presence overseas. Firms typically employ this strategy either by building new facilities or by merging with or acquiring existing companies. The authors demonstrate how the approach used by business depends on the nature of the obstacles a host government places before foreign commerce.